Paleontology and geology
Early in the Ordovician, shallow marine environments covered much of Georgia. However, toward the end of the Ordovician, the ancient continent of Laurentia collided with an oceanic plate. This collision caused the first of three episodes of mountain building that contributed to the formation of the Appalachians. Large amounts of sediment eroding from the mountains were carried to the sea and formed extensive tidal flats. These were later replaced by estuaries as more fresh water flowed into the seaway. Typical Ordovician fossils include brachiopods and bivalves, as well as traces of burrows, most likely formed by trilobites.