Paleontology and geology
Pleistocene glacial deposits and landforms are widespread around Newfoundland and Labrador. Debris carried by the glaciers polished and grooved exposed rock surfaces. It also smoothed and rounded some rocks, creating formations known as roches moutonnées (sheepback), which resemble sheep on a hillside. Some of the glacial debris was deposited in deltas along the coast. Wave action has shaped these sediments into barachois, which can be seen at the mouths of many rivers and streams, particularly at Barachois Provincial Park. After the glaciers melted, the land was free of the weight of ice and began to rebound. In the mountains of central Labrador, U-shaped valleys that were carved down to sea level by the glaciers now seem to hang above the modern valley floors. In Newfoundland, ancient fjords that once connected to the ocean were buoyed up and are now landlocked lakes. Humber Gorge even has deposits with fossils of marine invertebrates, evidence of its saltwater past.