Invertebrate traces

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Teredo petrified wood
Teredo petrified wood
© 2005 North Dakota Geological Survey


Bergaueria perata sp.
© 2009 Nova Scotia Museum

Unknown
Unknown
© 2004 UCMP

What are Invertebrate traces? Invertebrate traces include the impressions of activities, such as feeding, burrowing, boring, resting, walking, and crawling. Most of these traces were made in soft sediments like mud or sand and can now be seen in sandstones, shales, and limestones throughout the Phanerozoic. Other trace fossils, particularly boring or feeding traces, can be found on harder substrates. While most invertebrate trace fossils were made in marine environments, some are found in rocks representing terrestrial environments, such as termite mounds or insect marks on plants. The oldest definitive invertebrate trace fossils come from Early Cambrian rocks.

First known fossil occurrence: Cambrian.

Last known fossil occurrence: Quaternary. This group has living relatives.

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